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Immunopathologists study, diagnose and manage patients with disorders of the immune system, including allergic and autoimmune disorders, some types of cancer and primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Immunopathologists are often also involved in organ transplantation, and work to ensure the health of the community through the prevention of disease by immunisation.
Anatomical pathologists utilise a broad knowledge base and clinical understanding of the pathological and clinical aspects of diseases. Clinical pathologists undertake tissue diagnosis to identify abnormalities, thereby supporting medical diagnosis, patient management and medical research. Common conditions identified by anatomical pathologists include tumours and cancers, autoimmune disorders and infections. Tissue analysis may be via macroscopic pathology, histopathology, cytopathology and morbid anatomy procedures.
Respiratory physicians diagnose, treat and manage patients with diseases of the respiratory system, including diseases of the lungs, chest wall, pulmonary circulation and ventilatory control system. Sleep physicians diagnose, treat and manage patients with sleep-related conditions, including excessive snoring, sleep apnoea, insomnia, narcolepsy, circadian rhythm disorders and other abnormal conditions or events that occur during sleep.